professional scholarly journals.

Psychology homework help

Report Issue

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012) and/or American Psychological Association (2010). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. I need this completed by 08/03/19 at 12pm.


Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (C. Fri)

Needs That Clients Have

Clients coming in for vocational counseling services may end up finding that they have mental health or substance abuse counseling needs as well. Mental health problems can also arise due to stress or unhealthy issues happening within the client’s workplace. Clients may end up using substances to cope with the stress and anxiety that they are feeling from their place of work (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).

Interplay Between the Needs

Needing mental health or substance abuse counseling makes the client’s vocational counseling services more complex. With that being said, all issues must be handled properly in order for the client to find success within their vocational counseling sessions. New techniques have surfaced that contain early interventions for those managing severe mental illness. Medications have also come out that can bring those suffering from mental illness with success in a career. The Americans With Disabilities Act has helped those with mental illness to have more successful career options and reduced barriers when looking for employment. The Stages of Change has proved effective for those wanting vocational services that are suffering from substance abuse. Motivational Interviewing has also helped those with substance abuse issues wanting to work. Overall, the counselor will want to help those with mental health or substance abuse issues find their identity in order to be successful in vocational counseling (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).

Specific Challenges

Some clients may not understand how their mental health issues are directly impacting their career. On the other hand, some clients may not understand how their career is impacting their mental health issues. Also, some clients may not be privy on the idea of changing their substance abuse behaviors in order to find success in their vocational counseling. As a vocational counselor, one would want to assist their clients to find health, happiness, and fulfillment within a career. Getting the clients to understand that their environment plays a very important part in their health and happiness is key in situations like these. Showing empathy, reflecting on past experiences, role-playing specific scenarios, and supporting the client to find self-efficacy are very important when dealing with vocational clients struggling with mental health or substance abuse issues (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).


Capuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M. (2012). Career counseling: foundations, perspectives, and applications. New York: Routledge.

2. Classmate (L. N-G)

Multiple Needs of Clients with Mental Health/Substance Abuse Concerns Regarding Career Development and Explanation of Interplay Between the Two

There are career related challenges that individuals with mental health issues face. A number of considerations determine the necessity of and opportunity for career counseling with clients in this setting. Three examples of multiple needs that clients may have regarding mental health issues and career development are: individuals with personality disorders, those who have various forms of depression, and those who exhibit symptoms of anxiety related disorders including social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder. Because of the prominence of work in the lives of most individuals, those with personality disorders experience many work-related difficulties and problematic career choices. Research has indicated a significant positive relationship between depression and career indecision and between depression and dysfunctional career thought, and a negative relationship between depression and vocational identity. Anxiety produce feelings of apprehension and fearfulness and may be severe enough to limit everyday workplace behaviors. (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).

Challenges of Counselor Working with Mental Health/Substance Abuse Clients

Counselors are faced with different challenges when it comes to working with clients affected by mental health issues and those challenges are more complex depending on the nature of the mental health issue. With clients who do not possess cognitive clarity, counselors should postpone addressing career concerns until cognitive clarity is attained. Counselors may face diversity issues when working with clients that have mental health issues and should understand their needs in context. A last challenge for counselors working with individuals that are affected by mental health issues is that few counselors are skilled in offering services to all clients with all disorders, and this deems that counselors need to broaden their conceptions of career counseling to consider their clients mental health concerns. (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).

Addressing Challenges of Working with Mental Health/Substance Abuse Clients

Assisting individuals to gain career competence through implementation of authentic career-related goals is a mental health modality- a primary treatment intervention (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012). Addressing the challenges of working with clients who are affected by mental health issues can be done successfully when the counselor is fluent with various methods and interventions that are proved to be effective with such clients. Whether counselors work in career or mental health settings, they must use assessment methods in making sound decisions so that their interventions fit the needs of their clients (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012). Because the nature of mental health illness may preclude some individuals from reaching the level of career achievement that others may accomplish, it is important to bear in mind that the definition of career includes not only work but all other life roles as well (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012).


Cappuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M. (2012). Career counseling: foundations, perspectives, and applications. New York: Routledge.

3. Classmate (Y. Tho)

Multiple Needs

Career counseling for individuals with work stress and depression along with low self-esteem. In 1987, a Gallup survey partially sponsored by the National Career Development Association found that more than 30% of those surveyed (N = 1,006) reported that job stress interfered with their ability to perform, along with maintaining personal relationships and also affected their physical health. Stress can be a threat to mental health in the workplace. Feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness, racial anger, disparity in earnings, and rapid change can be stressors (Parmer & Rush, 2003). Although stress itself is neither good nor bad, there are optimal levels of stress. Stress occurs when an imbalance occurs between perceived external demands and the individual’s perceived capability to adequately respond to these demands. The individual may be unable to build an internal and personal resources necessary to counteract stress effectively. Stressors such as role overload, role ambiguity, interpersonal conflict, underemployment, and job loss are major causes of psychological and physiological stress. This can as build into many physical symptoms, including such common conditions as headaches, sleep disorders, anxiety and depression, lowering of self-esteem, substance abuse, and family disruption and abuse (Guindon & Smith, 2002 as cited in Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2012). Physiological problems such as many cardiovascular and digestive disorders are commonly attributed to stress reactions. Accidents, interpersonal conflicts, marital and family discord, apathy, and dissatisfaction are often attributable to stress Many of these symptoms may also be indicative of depression and anxiety.


Mental health practitioners and career counselors alike can play a major role in helping their clients manage stress in the workplace. Initially, they can assist their clients in recognizing symptoms of stress. This role is perhaps one of the most important ones counselors can have. Stress is so closely related to other mental health disorders that managing stress may serve as preventative intervention. Stress management techniques can be incorporated into career and life planning programs for people with the disorders (Capuzzi &Stauffer, 2012). The challenge as a mental health professional is to identify the cause of stress, for example is it work, home, drug addition or mental illness. Many clients come into counseling just wanting the counselor to fix the problem. We have to work with them to identify where their stress generated.


Cappuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M. (2012). Career counseling: foundations, perspectives, and applications. New York: Routledge.

Required Resources

· Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012). Career counseling: Foundations, perspectives, and applications. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Chapter 14, “Career Counseling in Mental Health and Private Practice Settings”
Chapter 18, “Career Counseling and Lifestyle Planning for Clients with Addictive Behaviors”


Week 10 Template (Word document) Click for more options


· National Career Development Association. (2015). Internet sites for career planning. Retrieved from

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 159 ( 2014 ) 314 – 318

Available online at

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of the Academic World Education and Research Center. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.379


WCPCG 2014

Family Influence on Disordered Eating Behaviour Kadriu Fortesaa*, Kerqeli Ajeteb

a University AAB, Prishtinë, 10000, Kosovo

b NGO Follow, Ulpiane, Prishtinë 10000, Kosovo


Appearance-focused family culture (Kluck, 2010) and weight-related teasing and comments (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010) have emerged as a contributing factor in disordered eating in daughters. This study has been conducted to examine the relation between parental modelling of eating behaviour and attitudes toward weight, parent weight related teasing and criticism and disordered eating behaviour. A survey of 393 Kosovo female undergraduate students was conducted. Participants completed the Eating Attitude Test-26, Family influence scale and a series of items about their parents’ comments about their weight/size. Regression analysis revealed that family modelling, mother and father pressure predicted significantly disordered eating behaviours, accounting for 28.9% of variance. Findings indicate that family attitudes towards appearance were the strongest predictor in problematic weight-related outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Peer-review under responsibility of the Academic World Education and Research Center.

Keywords:disordered eating, family eating attitudes, Kosovo, college female student population, weight teasing

1. Introduction

Early etiological investigations suggested that the family (Kluck, 2008), particularly the perceived pressure from parents (Rodgers, Paxton, &Chabrol, 2009), media and peers as important sociocultural sources of influence on eating disorders (Marcos, Sebastia’n, Aubalat, Ausina & Treasure, 2013). Even though family factors received moderate attention in academia (Garner & Newman, 2001); the yielded results on influence of the family so far have been inconsistent (Kluck, 2008). Moreover, a large body of research has found that disordered eating come into view either in highly developed economies or in countries which are undergoing fast market transformation and their linked impact on the status of women (Nasser et al., 2001), predominantly in countries which have been

*FortesaKadriu. Tel. + 386-493-588-58 E-mail address:

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of the Academic World Education and Research Center.

315 Kadriu Fortesa and Kerqeli Ajete / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 159 ( 2014 ) 314 – 318

exposed to Western values (Marcos et al., 2013). It has been postulated that social reinforcement, such as criticism regarding weight, encouragement to diet and family modelling of disordered eating behaviours promotes and perpetuates the thin ideal body image, resulting in eating pathology (Stice, 2001). Although a number of studies have found no influence of family in eating pathology (Garcia de Amusquibar & De Simone, 2003), other studies have pointed out that parents who are more critical of physical appearance and tease their daughters appearance (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010) for female university students (Baker, Whisman, & Brownell, 2000) and encourage dieting are associated with increased disordered eating (Kluck, 2008). In fact, not only negative comments about appearance, but also overtly positive feedback may lead to negative consequences (Calogero, Herbozo & Thompson, 2009). However no particular parental comment came out as a superior predictor of eating pathology (Kluck, 2010). Furthermore, encouragement to diet have been found to be predictive of unhealthy weight control behaviours and weight gain (Neumark-Sztainer , Wall , Story & Van Den Berg, 2008). Additionally, females developed unhealthy eating behaviours in comparison to their peers when their mothers where appearance focused (Hill, & Franklin, 1998), but was less consistently associated with their fathers (Vincent & McCabe, 2000). A contributing factor to disordered eating is also the tendency of certain families to admire thinness in others (Davis, Shuster, Blackmore, & Fox, 2004), and appraisal of potential positive regard from thinness (Jones, 2001). Nonetheless, the differences regarding findings for family influence in eating pathology can be as a consequence of the methodology used in different studies (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010). Hence, the following study investigates the familial weight-related environment, and relation with university female students’ eating disordered behavior, including the examination of both maternal and paternal influence. In addition the following study contributes to literature by shedding light on outcomes in a different culture, with an underrepresented population of diverse upbringing, since up to date there is not much research on the subject of disordered eating in Kosovo (Kadriu, Kelpi & Kalyva, 2013), a country which is going through cultural transition.Therefore this study has been conducted to examine the relation between parental modelling of eating behaviour and attitudes toward weight and parent weight related teasing and criticism and disordered eating behaviour.Accordingly, the following is the hypothesis: Participants who scored higher in family influence scale and on items about items about their parents’ comments about their weight/size, would report increased eating disordered behaviours. 2. Methodology

2.1 Participants

The sample of this study consisted of undergraduate female students from three universities in Kosovo. Three

hundred and ninety-three (393) students took part in the screening procedure. The age range was 18-25 years old (M=20.84 years; SD=1.52). Moreover, the sample consisted of participants coming from different places of Kosovo, including the main cities (Prishtina, Gjilan, Peja, Prizren, Gjakova, Mitrovica and Ferizaj). Nonetheless, the sample was convenient.

2.2. Measures

The Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT–26) (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr & Garfinkel, 1982) has been utilized in this study

to asses eating disordered behaviours. The EAT-26 is a 6 point Likert scale with 26 items. The internal consistencies for multi-ethnic sample is α=.86 (Welch, Miller, Ghaderi &Vaillancourt, 2009). Whereas, the test- retest reliability is r=.91 (Phan&Tylka, 2006). The Cronbach’s alpha in this study is calculated .83.The Family Influence Scale (Young, Clopton, &Bleckly, 2004) is a 5 point Likert scale with 12-item assessing family attitudes toward appearance or family focus on appearance and attractiveness. The scale has been adapted from Perceived Sociocultural Pressure Scale (PSPS) developed bytStice, Nemeroff, and Shaw (1996). The internal consistency value is .89 (Young et al., 2004). In the present study Cronbach alpha coefficient is .84A set of six items specifically related to negative parental comments developed by Kluck, (2006, 2008) were used in the present study. Participants reported the frequency of criticism, teasing and encouragement for weight control by each parent using a 5 point Likert scale. Cronbach’s alpha is .82.Kluck et al., 2009). In this study the Cronbach’s alpha is .78.

2.3 Procedure

316 Kadriu Fortesa and Kerqeli Ajete / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 159 ( 2014 ) 314 – 318

Participants were approached in universities by one of the researchers and were briefed about the study. Only

participants who agreed to partake in the research were given to fill out the package with questionnaires and informed consent. Of the 430 participants, 393 were included in the final results, since some were incomplete and some were above the age of 25.

3. Results

The mean EAT-26 score was M = 65.36, SD = 14.28. The mean BMI score was M=20.25, SD=2.19. Eating

Disordered Behaviours scores were regressed on family modelling, mother pressure and father pressure. These three predictors accounted for 28.9% of the variance in eating disturbance. Family modelling (β = .35, p < .000), father pressure (β = .41, p = .001) demonstrated significant effects on Eating Disordered Behaviours scores. There was also a statistically significant association between mother pressure and Eating Disordered Behaviours scores (r(314) = .35, p = .000). Intercorrelations between the variables are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Means, Standard Deviations and Intercorrelations Among the Study Variables

Variables M SD 1 2 3 4 5 1.Family modelling a




2. Father pressure 4.36 2.04 .373** 1.00

3.Mother pressure 5.15 2.33 .495** .614** 1.00

4.Eating Disorders Behaviours

65.34 14.32 . 476** .337** .358** .358** 1.00

5. BMI 20.28 2.14 .13 * .21** .20** .208** 1

a Higher scores indicate less body satisfaction**p < .000 * p < .01

Table 2 Parental comments predicting disordered eating behaviour. Types of parental comment R

Criticism about weight/size .063**

Teasing about weight/size .065**

Encouragement to control weight/size .198** ** p< .000

4. Discussion

This study explored the prospective association of family modelling and father and mother weight talk for weight status and eating disordered behaviours in Kosovo undergraduate female students. Findings indicate that family modelling and fathers’ weight talk predicted subsequent increases of eating disordered behaviours, partially supporting the claimed hypothesis. These results are in line with previous research, which predicted that female university students (Baker, Whisman & Brownell, 2000) whose parents are critical of physical appearance and tease them for appearance (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010), report more disordered eating (Kluck, 2008).Furthermore, as shown in earlier research (Kluck, 2010) findings of this study also reveal that parental comments predicted disordered eating, even though parental encouragement for weight control explained more variance in the prediction model. These results may infer that even comments are given with positive intentions; they can still have a negative impact on daughters, consistent with previous findings (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2008). In contrast with similar

317 Kadriu Fortesa and Kerqeli Ajete / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 159 ( 2014 ) 314 – 318

research reports(Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2010), the study found evidence that paternal weight talk was more associated with increased girls’ disordered eating than maternal variables in the current study. Although additional research is needed to fully understand the role fathers play into eating behaviours of their daughters, the current finding could presumably be explained by the division of power based on gender role, specifically in collectivist cultures, where the role of father is more dominant. Moreover, there was no support for the assertion that mother weight talk predicts eating disordered behaviour, which does not converge with previous findings (Hill & Franklin, 1998). Lastly, this study highlights that appearance focused family culture was associated to eating pathology. The current result dovetails with many previous researches that linked weight-centric family environment with eating disordered behaviours (Davis et al., 2004; Kluck, 2010).There are a number of limitations in the current study that need to be addressed. Consequently, findings of this study cannot be generalized. Even though alpha coefficients for the used scale where acceptable (<.7) (George & Mallery, 2003), the scales have not been standardized yet in Albanian language. Additionally, the sample was convenient. Moreover, the findings of this study could be confounded since participants were not assessed for bulimic symptoms, thus the results could be merely suggestive. Supplementary studies could further shed lights into the influence of family dynamic factors since this study explained only 28.9% of the variance in the model and did not tackle the dynamic part. Finally, this study contributes to the existing knowledge by exploring family influence on eating pathology on a different cultural context. Moreover, results reflect the need to work with families of young women presenting with eating pathology, in particular it is novel the engagement of fathers in prevention and treatment plans.


Baker, C. W., Whisman, M. A., & Brownell, K. D. (2000). Studying intergenerational transmission of eating attitudes and behaviors: Methodological and conceptual questions. Health Psychology, 19, 376–381.

Calogero, M. R., Herbezo, S., & Thompson, J.K., (2009). Complimentary Weightism: The potential costs of appearance-related commentary for women’s self-objectification. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33 (2009), 120–132.

Davis, C., Shuster, B., Blackmore, E., & Fox, J. (2004). Looking good — Family focus on appearance and the risk for eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders,35, 136−144.

Garcia de Amusquibar, A. M., & De Simone, C. J. (2003). Some features of mothers of patients with eating disorders. Eating & Weight Disorders,8, 225−230.

Garner, D. M, & Newman A. (2001. The Eating Attitudes Test: twenty-five years later.Eating Weight Disord,6:1–24. George, D., &Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn&Baco Hill, A.J., Franklin, J.A., (1998). Mothers, daughter, and dieting: investigating the transmission of weight control. British Journal of Clinical

Psychology; 37:13–28. Jones, D.C. (2001). Social comparisons and body image: Attractiveness comparisons to models and peers among adolescent girls and boys. Sex

Roles; 45:645–64. Kadriu, F., Kelpie, M.,i&Kalyva, E. (2014). Eating-disordered behaviours in Kosovo school-based population: potential risk factors. Procedia –

Social and Behavioral Sciences,114, 382-387. Kluck, A. (2008). Family factors in the development of disordered eating: Integrating dynamic and behavioral explanations. Eating Behaviors, 9,

471–483. Kluck, A. (2010). Family influence on disordered eating: The role of body imspo age dissatisfaction. Body image, 7, 8-14. Marcos, Q., Sebastia, Q., Aubalat, P..,Ausina, B., & Treasure, J. (2012). Peer and family influence in eating disorders: a meta-analysis. European

Psychiatry 28, 199–206. Nasser, M., Katzan, M., & Gordon, R. (2001). Eating disorders and cultures in transition. Taylor & Francis: New York. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Story, M., & Van Den Berg, P. (2008). Accurate parental classification of their overweight adolescents’ weight

status:Does it matter? Pediatrics; 121:e1495–502. Phan, T., &Tylka, L. T. (2006). Exploring a model and moderators of disordered eating with Asian American college women. Journal of

counseling psychology, 53 (1), 36-47. Rodgers, R., Paxton, S., Chabrol, H. (2009). Effects of parental comments on body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in young patients: a

sociocultural model. Body Image, 2, 171–177. Stice E., (2001). A prospective test of the dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology:mediating effect of dieting and negative affect. Journal of

Abnormal Psychology; 110:124–35. Stice, E., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Shaw, H., (1996). A test of the dual pathway model of bulimia nervosa: Evidence for restrained-eating and

affect-regulation mechanisms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 340-363. Vincent, M. A., & McCabe, M.P. (2000). Gender differences among adolescents in family, and peer influences on body dissatisfaction, weight

loss, and binge eating behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence; 29:205–21. Welch, E., Miller, L. J., Ghaderi, A., &Vaillancourt, T. (2009). Does perfectionism mediate or moderate the relation between body dissatisfaction

and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours? Eating behaviours, 10, 168-175.

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Young, E. A., Clopton, J. R., &Bleckley, M. K. (2004). Perfectionism, low self-esteem, and family factors as predictors of bulimicbehavior. Eating Behaviors,5, 273–283.

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The Frivolity of Evil

Psychology homework help

Report Issue

The Frivolity of Evil

Please use MLA format.

Words: 1000-1500



Students should demonstrate that they can distinguish the relevant points that form a logically coherent argument. They should also be able to construct criticisms which effectively undermine, through the use of appropriate counter-examples, some premise of that argument.

you will type a 1000-1500 word response in which you address EACH of the following points IN YOUR OWN WORDS:

1) What is the author’s main argument?

2) How does he support his main argument (evidence, ancillary arguments, etc.)?

3) Do you agree or disagree with him?

4) Why or why not?

5) Apply the insights of at least two of the readings we have studied in this course (in chapters 1-9) to your analysis. Make sure to give a substantive explanation of how the philosophers’ insights are relevant to the topic you are discussing.

A WORD OF WARNING: These articles are rather long and complex. The author likes to make extensive use of his rather copious vocabulary, so I strongly urge you to have handy as you work your way through your chosen article. The purpose of this essay assignment is for you to demonstrate your ability to discuss, analyze, and evaluate complex philosophic arguments. I am confident that the reading assignments, tests, and discussion boards will have prepared you for this final, and no doubt challenging, essay assignment.

Note: I only allow one attempt on this assignment. Students who do not fully address all of the components of the assignment as stated in the instructions as well as the grading rubric below will have to be content with the grade they earned.

Your paper will be graded according to the following rubric:
Grading Rubric:

The following standards are numbered in order of importance for grading.

1.Essay demonstrates an understanding of the material: The student has correctly grasped a philosophical problem or question, has explained it accurately, and on the basis of a substantially correct interpretation of any texts involved. Key terms are used correctly. The essay shows evidence of the student’s independent thought, and is written in his or her distinctive voice. Short (one sentence) quotations are used (comprising no more than 10% of the body of the paper), when appropriate, to support the writer’s analysis, and an explanation is offered for each quotation. The use of block quotations will result in a severe point deduction.

95 points

2.Essay has clear and coherent argument: There is a clearly stated thesis, and support for this thesis in the body of the paper. Each paragraph contributes to this argument, and follows logically from the paragraph before it. The argument presented is persuasive. The insights of two other philosophers are incorporated into the analysis.

95 points

3.Essay fulfills assigned task: The essay addresses the entire assigned question or topic, elaborating on important ideas in satisfactory depth, but without bringing in anything extraneous or irrelevant. The introduction of the essay focuses and provides clarity for the paper. Important terms are clearly and accurately defined. Each paragraph conveys a coherent, organized thought. Short (one sentence) quotations are occasionally used, when appropriate, to support the writer’s analysis, and an explanation is offered for each quotation. No more than 10% of paper is made up of direct quotes. No block quotations.

40 points

4.Essay obeys standards for good persuasive writing: the writer shows that he or she is comfortable using philosophical language, and the prose is clear, not awkward. The structure of the sentences reflects the relationships between/among the ideas discussed.

40 points

5.Essay is technically correct: The essay has been carefully and thoughtfully proofread. The argument is written in complete sentences, with punctuation that does not mislead the reader. There are no mistakes in spelling, grammar, word choice, and punctuation.

30 points

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persoanl growth discussion

Psychology homework help
persoanl growth discussion

Psychological Disorders and Mental health

Abnormal behavior

· How would you define abnormal behavior?

· At what point does abnormal behavior become an illness?

· How do we define mental illness?

The medical model and Abnormal behavior

· Medical Model

· Proposes that it’s useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease

· The Medical Model has produced many terms we use in abnormal psychology

· Mental Illness

· Psychological Disorder

· Psychopathology

· Psychotic manifestation of the disease

· Because of the medical model we have diagnosis

· Distinguishing one illness from another

· We understand the etiology

· Causation and developmental history of an illness

· We are able to give a prognosis

· Forecast about probable course of an illness

· I use interventions based in the theory of the medical model every day in clinical practice

· The Medical Model is progressive in comparison to past theories

· Superstition

· Possession

· Witches

The Medical Model and Abnormal Behavior

· Viewing patients as victims of an illness

· Created a new understanding of abnormal behavior

· Shifted view of patients from fear and hatred to sympathy and compassion

· This changed the way abnormal behavior was treated

· Past burning at the stake (witches) or Exorcism

· Mental asylums

· By creating labels for abnormal behavior ie; mental illness

· We are better able to identify and treat the needs of a patient

· Is there harm in viewing abnormal behavior or abnormal psychology as an illness?

· Thomas Szasz The Myth of Mental Illness (1974)

· “disease of illness can affect only the body; hence there can be no mental illness…Minds can be sick only in the sense that jokes are sick or economies are sick (1974).

· Abnormal behavior is a deviation from social norms, not an illness

· Problems in living, not medical problems

What is abnormal behavior

· Deviance

· Behavior deviates from what society considers to be acceptable

· Maladaptive

· Impairment in every day adaptive behavior

· Key criterion in diagnosis of substance abuse disorders

· Personal distress

· Individual report of personal distress as a result of the behavior

· My anxiety keeps me from engaging in social functions that I want to be a part of

· Defining abnormal behavior is very helpful in understanding how to treat it

· This definition and using it as an approach is not perfect

· It relies heavily on self report

· It relies on a value judgment of what constitutes normal or acceptable

· It can be highly subjective

· The dichotomy of abnormal vs normal is to simplistic

· As we have learned in this class, behavior often exists on a spectrum like many other things

Anxiety Disorders

· Generalized Anxiety Disorder

· Phobic Disorder

· Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

· Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

· Etiology (Causes)

· Biology

· Conditioning and Learning

· Cognitive Factors

· Stress

Mood Disorders

· Major Depressive Disorder

· Bipolar Disorder (I & II)

· Often misrepresented in the media, society (“she’s so bipolar”)

· Dysthymia

· Etiology

· Genetics

· Neurochemicals

· Norepinephrine and serotonin

· Cognitive Factors

· Interpersonal Factors

· Stress

Psychological Disorders and Mental Health

· These are just some examples of the ways in which behavior or individual psychology can be abnormal

· By understanding mental illness we can better predict outcomes and plan treatment

· Understanding illness paves the way to creating health

· Mental Health is as important as medical health

· Some would insist that mental health is the same as medical health


Mental Health Stigma?

· Before we begin learning about psychotherapy, take a moment to ask yourself:

· What do you think about someone who goes to therapy?

· What does it mean if a couple is in couple’s counseling?

· How do you feel about someone who has a severe mental illness?

· What do you think therapy is like? What are your expectations of therapy?

· There has long been a negative stigma associated with therapy and those with mental illness

· We often mislabel people (crazy, bipolar, etc.)

· If you go to therapy, you must be messed up

· If your relationship needs counseling, it’s too late

· We often fear what we don’t understand

· There are many misconceptions about mental illness and mental health diagnosis

What is therapy?

· The textbook describes research estimating over 400 different types of therapy!

· Therapy is: meeting with a trained professional to address mental, relational, and emotional concerns

· Insight therapy

· Behavior therapy

· Biomedical therapy

· Psychotherapy is: “talk therapy”

· Trained Professionals

· Psychologist

· Psychiatrist

· Social Worker

· Licensed Professional Counselor

· Marriage and Family Therapist

Insight Therapy

· Psychoanalysis

· Developed by Freud

· Focusing on unconscious, defense mechanisms

· Internal conflicts between id, ego, and superego from previous chapter (2)

· Free association

· Client spontaneously expresses their thoughts and feelings as they occur with no filter (word vomit)

· This is what we typically think of when we think of therapy

· Client laying on therapist’s couch, therapist is guiding client through exploration of unresolved conflicts

Client Centered Therapy

· Carl Rogers

· Humanistic perspective

· Also known as person-centered therapy

· A form of insight therapy that emphasizes the importance of the client

· Pace and direction of therapy follows client’s emotional comfort and safety

Group Therapy

· Group therapy helps people find others to share in a common experience

· Normalize struggle

· Gain strength through support

· Open forum for discussion

· Alcoholics Anonymous

· Divorce Recovery

Behavioral Therapy

· Identify problematic behavior, learn and reinforce new, more adaptive behavior

· Reinforce desired behavior

· Most common is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

· Focuses on connection between thoughts, feelings, actions

· By changing one element, you change all

Biomedical therapy

· We discussed the BioPsychoSocial model of illness earlier

· Problems come from biological factors, in addition to psychological and social factors

· Biomedical therapy includes physiological interventions

· Medication

· Treatment of anxiety, depression, psychosis, mood disorder

· Coordination of care with mental health practitioner and medical professional

· Psychiatrist, Primary Care Doctor, Nurse Practitioner

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Applied Behavioral Science


Psychology homework help

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You will review the below case study to examine throughout the course. The case study presents a topic and area of applied psychology. This topic will provide you with an opportunity to examine the uses of applied behavioral science.

Case Study

Educational Psychology: Learning Disabilities Eight year old Jimmy is having difficulty learning, and he is showing specific problems in reading and math. Parents and teachers have worked together to try and understand what is happening. They have determined the problem is not the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, mental retardation, emotional disorders, or environmental, cultural, or economic issues. Finally, after all of this is ruled out, Jimmy is classified as having two learning disabilities: dyslexia and dyscalculia.

Your introductory paragraph must include a description of the basic characteristics of science and a definition of applied behavioral science. Your conclusion must include a preliminary examination of the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of utilizing at least one applied behavioral science intervention method to address the concerns in the case study

The Case Study Selection paper

· Must be one to two double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

o Title of paper

o Student’s name

o Course name and number

o Instructor’s name

o Date submitted

· Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.

· Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis and summarizes supporting evidence.

· Must use at least one scholarly source published within the past 10 years.

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Humans as Political Beings

Human Rights / Humans as Political Beings

Lecture 2.4

Natural Rights, Civil Rights, Human Rights

So far, in this unit of the course, the notion of “rights” has come up several times. Both Hobbes, Locke, and Mills discuss rights in some way.

As you may recall, Hobbes defines right as a type of liberty, the freedom to do something without impediment. Both Hobbes and Locke believe that humans have natural rights, that is inherent freedoms that they are endowed with by nature. In other words, because humans and the world are they way they are, humans come with pre-given rights. For Hobbes the principle right held by humans was to do whatever it takes to survive. For Locke it was to defend one’s property (including one’s life).

For Hobbes, when humans enter a social contract and form a government with laws, they give up

their natural rights. For Locke, the institution of government provides a way of guaranteeing one’s natural rights by codifying those rights into law. When a sovereign power establishes rights for its citizens and laws for protecting those rights, we get civil rights.

Natural rights apply in the state of nature while civil rights apply in civilization. Human rights refer to those rights which humans hold simply because they are human. Such rights are closer in kind to natural rights, but are often reflected in civil rights.

The notion of human rights gets invoked frequently in discussions of violations of human dignity and ethics. But where do human rights come from? Are they real? Who guarantees them? How effective are they in protecting vulnerable people? Do other-than-human beings have rights, too?

Amartya Sen, 1933 – Sen was born in West Bengal India in 1933. He received is B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in Economics at Trinity College in Cambridge, England. His research has included topics such as social choice theory, economic theory, ethics and political philosophy, welfare economics, theory of measurement, decision theory, development economics, public health, and gender studies. His interest in global welfare and human rights was partly inspired by his experience of witnessing famine in India.

Sen has served on various economic advisory boards including the American Economic Association. He has also received numerous awards for his work, the most prestigious of which was the Nobel Prize in economics.

Sen currently teaches at Harvard University.

Hannah Arendt, 1906-1975

Arendt was born in Linden, Germany in 1906 to a Jewish family. She studied under the German philosophers Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers while at university. She received her Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Marburg in 1926. She fled Germany to Paris in 1933 after being briefly held in a detention camp. After the outbreak of WWII, she and her husband fled to the U.S.

Arendt’s most famous book Eichmann in Jerusalem (1963) was based on her reporting of the trial of infamous Nazi officer Adolf Eichmann for the New Yorker. It was extremely controversial partly because she claimed that evil was “banal” and that Eichmann wasn’t a devil but just a boring, unthinking person incapable of seeing the world from another’s perspective.

Arendt is considered to be one of the most influential political thinkers of the 20th century.

United Nations The United Nations is an international organization that was established in 1945 and currently includes 193 member nations. The U.N. has four main offices located in New York City, Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.

It was established following WWII for the purpose of preventing further catastrophic wars and protecting and securing the future of humanity around the globe. The U.N. consists of 5 active bodies: The General Assembly (for deliberation and discussion), Security Council (for dealing with peace and security issues), Economic and Social Council (for promoting economic growth and cooperation), International Court of Justice (for holding war criminals accountable), and Secretariat (for providing studies, info, services).

The concept of human rights was essential to the message of the U.N.’s founding charter.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights In 1948, the U.N. ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). According the the U.N. it marks a common standard of achievements for all peoples and nations, and sets out the fundamental human rights that should be universally protected.

By definition, human rights, are rights/freedoms that come with being human. If you’re human, you have human rights. But how do we know what those rights are? The UDHR includes 30 articles, some of which list more than one right. These include things like the right to freely participate in the cultural life of the community to the right to be recognized as a person before the law to the right of parents to seek education for their children.

Look over the list of UDHR articles and think about the following:

● Are all of these rights natural rights? ● How did these rights get recognized as rights? ● Why do these rights, as implied by their name “human rights,” only apply to humans? ● What is the purpose of drafting up a list of rights is then signed and ratified by the member-nations of the

U.N.? ● Does this charter tell us how to recognize when a being is a human?

The Need for Human Rights The UDHR begins with several claims about the necessity of recognizing human rights, principally that the “recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world” (1). In other words, when everyone recognizes these rights as fundamental to human life and well-being, humans as a species can flourish in prosperity, freedom, and peace. A recognition of universal human rights can foster mutual respect among different people of different nationalities, religions, ethnic backgrounds, genders, and political affiliations.

The principles laid out by the UDHR are meant to help countries around the world to structure their own constitutions and laws as well a their international relationships. It helps to establish the idea that humans are more alike than they are different. This is especially important because difference has been one of the leading justifications for war, slavery, genocide, gendercide, and colonization. Even though the member countries of the U.N. ratified (officially consented to make valid) the UDHR, humans rights violations occur throughout the world all the time in the most politically and economically stable nations (U.S., Japan, Germany, etc.) and in less stable nations (Venezuela, Syria, Somalia).

Thus, the UDHR is an ideal to which the member nations of the world (and especially the drafters of the resolution) hope to aspire. As Sen explains, “The understanding that some rights are not fully realized, and may not be fully realizable under present circumstances…suggests the need to work towards changing the prevailing circumstances to make the unrealized rights realizable, and ultimately, realized (1005).

Need for Human Rights (2)

Sen’s assessment of the need for human rights coincides with that of the U.N. According to Sen, “proclamations of human rights are to be seen as ethical demands” and “an assertion of the importance of…the freedoms that are identified and privileged in the formulation of the rights in question” (1000).

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that attempts to systematize, recommend, and defend principles and concepts of right human behavior. Generally, the goal of ethics is recognized as the effort to help humans live good lives. Good, in this case, can refer to all sorts of notions of “good” from the opposite of evil to correct and right to that which is most valuable.

This means, that from Sen’s perspective, when someone claims that something like healthcare is a human right, that person is saying that without unfettered (free) access to healthcare, humans cannot live good lives. Or, if you believe that humans should lead good lives, they should all have access to affordable healthcare. From this view, healthcare is a right because it is necessary for living a good human life.

In other words, when people assert their human rights, claim that humans rights have been violated, or draft legislation to protect human rights, they are making an ethical assertion about the value of certain freedoms for the good of individual humans and human society.

Need for Human Rights (3) For Sen, human rights can be “parents of law.” That is, ethical demands for the recognition of rights like access to affordable healthcare, the freedom to practice one’s religion or practice no religion, and the freedom to get a fair trial can and should inspire lawmakers within nations to draft laws that will enshrine and protect such rights. Of course, this comes with the understanding that any given government has the welfare of its citizens as its primary concern.

However, Sen is careful to point out that “an ethical understanding of human rights…goes against seeing them as legal demands” (1000). In other words, human rights are not civil rights, that is rights granted to be people based on the law of their nation.

Even though a nation’s interest in protecting human rights typically begins with protecting its own citizens, the UDHR implies that countries must not only take an interest in their own citizens but in all of humanity. The U.N. is an extra-sovereign, inter-governmental body. In other words, it has no official sovereign power; it does not rule over other nations like nations rule over their citizens. Rather, it is more like an assembly, a means by which representatives of other nations can come together to discuss problems that extend beyond their country’s borders (i.e. climate change, war, famine, epidemics).

This means that the U.N. needs to convince nations to come to the defense of humans who live in other countries where their rights are being violated. The framework of human rights provide a means for countries to negotiate with one another.

Need for Human Rights (4) In The Origins of Totalitarianism Hannah Arendt takes a different approach to the need for human rights. Putting the rise of human rights language into a historical perspective, she writes, “The proclamation of human rights was also meant to be a much-needed protection in the new era where individuals were no longer secure in the estates to which they were born or sure of their equality before God as Christians. In other words, in the new secularized and emancipated society, men were no longer sure of these social and human rights which until then had been outside the political order and guaranteed not by government and constitution, but by social, spiritual, and religious forces” (291).

In other words, before the start of French Revolution in 1789 a person’s rights were derived from one’s belief in a God that endowed humans with reason, intelligence, and other abilities. Belief in God, in an authority beyond the human realm, ensured one’s rights. God, who was objective and all-powerful, was the ultimate judge beneath which human authority was pale and arbitrary. But as belief in religious powers waned and as notions of polygenesis (the belief that there were multiple beginnings or human origins), Darwinism, and freedom of religion spread, the security that belief in God brought to natural rights was undermined, leaving humans to build a new foundation for those rights.

Inalienability of Human Rights According to the most famous line of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” In this, as in many other documents regarding human rights, these rights are almost always referred to as inalienable. If something is inalienable it cannot be given or taken away by the possessor.

The declaration that rights are inalienable is powerful for activists who wish to improve the lives of people around the world, but as Arendt points out, the “inalienability” of rights isn’t so simple, especially when they are no longer “endowed by their Creator.”

Rather the inalienability of human rights leads to a paradox: “Since the Rights of Man were proclaimed to be ‘inalienable,’ irreducible to and undeducible from other rights or laws, no authority was invoked for their establishment; Man himself was their source as well as their ultimate goal. No special law, moreover, was deemed necessary to protect them because all laws were supposed to rest upon them” (291).

In other words, the inalienability of human rights implies that rights spring unencumbered from the human being itself and are thus evident to anyone who encounters another human. Thus, human rights should be able to stand on their own without the support of laws. They are a symbol of one’s total emancipation (freedom) from any restrictive order be it government or religion.

Paradox of the Inalienability of Human Rights For Arendt, this inalienability highlights an important paradox in human rights discussions. Since human rights sprang from one’s mere humanness unrelated to government, social order, religion, and all other types of human community, then they referred to an entirely abstract notion of a human being. However, humans don’t exist abstractly, they exist in the world, amongst their peers and families, in nations, and in cultural communities. Human life depends on being a member of a community, and the most common form of community in the modern world is the nation.

Hence, “The Rights of Man, after all, had been defined as ‘inalienable’ because they were supposed to be independent of all governments;

but it turned out that the moment human beings lacked their own government and had to fall back upon their minimum rights, no authority was left to protect them and no institution was willing to guarantee them” (292).

In other words, when people are deprived of governmental protection, they also lose the rights that were supposedly guaranteed by their very inclusion within the human species because there is no one willing or able to defend their rights.

Stateless and Rightless People According to Arendt, the paradox of human rights comes to light when we start considering the rights of stateless people. One of the major ethical questions raised by Arendt’s analysis of human rights is: what are the rights of stateless people and what standing to the rightless have in the world?

First, what does it mean to be stateless? For Arendt, a stateless person is anyone who is a member of a group who was “welcomed nowhere and could be assimilated nowhere. Once they [the group] had left their state they became stateless; once they had been deprived of their human rights they were rightless, the scum of the earth” (267). Writing as a Jew who had fled from Germany on the eve of WWII, it’s likely that Arendt had in mind refugees of civil wars as the quintessential example of stateless people.

But stateless people have also historically included many other groups including illegal immigrants and people who didn’t use a form of government recognized by white Europeans. For example, the in the eyes of the European colonists and European slave traders, Native Africans and Native Americans were pre-civilization, subhuman, and therefore excluded from the realm of moral obligation. As “naturally inferior” they, like animals, were exempt from the rights held by the “naturally superior” white Europeans. Look back at the Mills reading for some examples.

Stateless and Rightless People (2)

Even though human rights were generally received as something positive, Arendt notes that there was never a real effort made to implement and ensure them. The main reason for this was that civil rights had historically tended to guarantee the rights now associated with human rights and to change their governments if they didn’t. However, “The Rights of Man, supposedly inalienable, proved to be unenforcable–even in countries whose constitutions were based upon them–whenever people appeared who were no longer citizens of any sovereign state” (293).

Even though everyone seems to agree that the plight of the stateless is their loss of rights, no one can agree what to do about them.

Just think about the current Syrian refugee crisis. Millions of people are being displaced by the Syrian civil war, but the U.S., which is supposedly a defender of human rights has just put in place a ban keeping new refugees from entering the country even though their basic human rights aren’t being met and staying in Syria might lead to their deaths.

Stateless and Rightless People (3) Arendt says that the rightless suffer two primary losses:

1. Loss of their homes, “the entire social texture into which they were born” (293) and their distinct place in the world

2. Loss of government protection and legal status in all countries

Most importantly, “The calamity of the rightless is not they are deprived of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, or of equality before the law and freedom of opinion–formulas which were designed to solve problems within given communities–but that they no longer belong to any community whatsoever” (295). They are “superfluous.”

Notice that Arendt is extremely focused on the notions of place and community in her account of rightlessness. As I said earlier, Arendt believes human life is fundamentally and inextricably tied to community. Without it, our lives lack meaning, structure, and purpose. This is why she can come to this conclusion:

“The fundamental deprivation of human rights is manifested first and above all in the deprivation of a place in the world which makes opinions significant and actions effective. Something much more fundamental than freedom and justice…is at stake when belonging to the community into which one is born is no longer a matter of course and not belonging no longer a matter of choice” (296).

Nothing but Human Take a moment to read Arendt’s account of slavery on page 297. Consider the following questions:

● What’s the difference between a slave and a stateless person?

● What do slaves have that the stateless don’t? ● Based on this passage, how we summarize

Arendt’s definition of humanity? ● What is the role of community in a person’s


Even slaves, whose rights have been trampled on to the severest extent, are more secure in their rights than the stateless. The reason: “To be a slave was after all to have a distinctive character, a place in society–more than the abstract nakedness of being human and nothing but human. Not the loss of rights, then, but the loss of a community willing

and able to guarantee those rights whatsoever, has been the calamity which has befallen ever-increasing numbers of people” (297).

What does Arendt mean by “nothing but human”? By this she means the state of being merely a being with a human body and mind. A being born into the state of humanness. Being nothing but human means to be an abstract individual in a sea of other individuals without any of the markers that distinguish one as meaningful. One “begin[s] to belong to the human race in much the same way as animals belong to a specific animal species. The paradox involved in the loss of human rights is that such loss coincides with the instant when a person becomes a human being in general–without a profession, without citizenship, without an opinion, without a deed which to identify and specify himself–and…loses all significance” (302).

The Myth of Human Rights For Arendt, the notion of human rights is constructed on the myth that humans are equal in the state of nature. In contrast to Hobbes and Locke, Arendt doesn’t believe people are born equal:

“Equality, in contrast to all that is involved in mere existence, is not given us, but is the result of human organization insofar as it is guided by the principle of justice. We are not born equal; we become equal as members of a group on the strength of our decision to guarantee ourselves mutually equal rights” (301). Only politics can produce equality.

Because human rights are supposed to apply to human beings equally, universally and indiscriminately, then in theory no human should be able to lose her rights. But humans lose their rights all the time or, in some case, are never granted them to begin with.

Since the idea of human rights depends on the equality of all persons and since humans are not equal except when there are laws and customs that establish that equality, the idea of inalienable human rights is fundamentally flawed.

If Arendt is correct in her analysis, should we give up on the idea of human rights? Is it a dead, useless concept? Or can it still be beneficial?

The Importance of Human Rights Amartya Sen would argue that the concept of human rights is still significant and carries important weight in politics.

As we saw before, according to Sen, claims to human rights are ethical claims–they help make it know that there is an injustice occurring or that people are suffering. Human rights become calls to act in a way that will increase the welfare of human beings and can act as a standard way of measuring the wellbeing of humans around the world.

Human rights might be a myth, but they are a myth that helps humans to communicate to one another about the things that matter in making their lives livable and even enjoyable and meaningful.

Determining Human Rights Whether human rights are inalienable or something constructed by humans as a means of helping them to flourish in the world, the question of how do we determine which rights are human rights still remains.

According to Sen, human right are demands to respect a particular freedom. Yet, “for a freedom to count as a part of the evaluative system of human rights, it must be important enough to justify requiring that others be ready to…advance it” (1001).

For a freedom to be considered a right, it must meet two criteria:

1. Be important 2. Be interpersonal and interactive

Consider the four freedoms that Sen lists on pg. 1002. Which of these does he think meet the criteria for being a human right? Why?

The types of freedoms protected by human rights include process and opportunity freedoms. These refer to the ability of persons to choose to act or not act in particular circumstance as opposed to being forced.

Finally, for a freedom to be considered an acceptable right, it needs to be scrutinized by the global community in a forum of “unobstructed discussion.” By unobstructed discussion Sen means a place where no one is being forced to say something against their will, but is speaking openly without fear of retaliation. Such public reasoning can help lead to ethical objectivity.

Conclusions To wrap up, there are debates about whether or not human rights are born from human nature or whether humans have constructed human rights as just another myth for making sense of and ordering the world.

As Arendt shows, the concept of humans rights has flaws and paradoxes that reveal weaknesses in the argument that human rights are inalienable. For Arendt, the only way this could be the case is if some divine being endowed us with rights.

But for Sen, even if human rights aren’t inalienable, they are useful for holding humans around the world to certain ethical standards that will guarantee the well being of flourishing of humans everywhere.

Discussion Question

Based on Arendt’s analysis of human rights, do you think human rights are sufficient for protecting vulnerable populations including refugees illegal immigrants, and people forced into exile? What are some of Arendt’s reasons? Use a current event to explain your analysis.

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Ability to learn and adapt

Career and Work

“What do you do?”

· As we get older, we often define ourselves by what we do

· “I’m a”: Therapist, Student, Teacher, Nurse, Server, etc.

· When we meet someone, we often ask, so what do you do?

· Why do we ask this?

· Remember what you’ve learned about self concepts, we also form concepts of others

· This means we define people, in part, by what they do as a career

· What do you learn about someone when you ask?

· Personality characteristics

· Values

· Beliefs

· Interests


· In our current society, people can have many different experiences with work

· Some people start working at a young age, some wait until later in life

· Some people work many different jobs, some people stay in one field

· What we do for work often depends on things like accessibility, financial needs, scheduling, skill set

· What we do for work is not always the same as what we want (or think we want) for our career path

· Often work is pursued because of motivations other than beliefs or values

· Bills, kids, pets, expenses, etc.

How do we decide what we want to do?

· Family influences

· Fields we are exposed to (take your child to work day, etc.)

· Personality traits

· Interests developed through experience

· Spending time on a farm with your grandparents helping as a child

· Personal characteristics

· Intelligence

· Interests

· Skills

· Ability to learn and adapt

· Beliefs and values

· Someone inclined towards social justice issues might pursue a career in a helping field

· Someone who grows up to value justice and equality might pursue a field in law

· Value of education may influence you to want to be a teacher

How Do you Know what YOU want?

· Personal characteristics

· What do you like/dislike to do?

· What brings you a sense of purpose?

· Are you motivated by money? Schedule?

· What sparks your interest?

· What do you value?

· Family Influences

· What examples were you given?

· What were you taught about work?

· It’s just something you do to pay the bills

· It defines you

· What were you raised to value?

EX: What made you become a therapist?

· People often ask me why I became a therapist, usually followed by, “I don’t know how you do it.”

· Belief in Law of attraction

· You get what you give

· Meaning Making

· I believe the experiences I’ve had give me good perspective

· People person

· I enjoy connecting with people, I am interested in people

· Therapy helped me

· I value therapy because it was positive for me

· Didn’t become a famous comedian

· We adjust and refine our goals over time

· My parents were both in helping professions

· I spent a lot of time in hospitals, learned a lot about helping careers as a child

· In short, my career came about as a sum of my experiences

What do you do once you know?

· What are the options for the career you are choosing?

· Self employment or with a company?

· What kind of education/Certification will you need

· Where are these training programs located?

· What are their requirements/pre -requisites

· Will you need to start getting experience?

· Volunteer, shadowing

· What is the outlook for your chosen career?

· Salary

· Job growth/availability

· Location

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Critical Thinking Essay

Similar Questions

Psychology homework help

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Benchmark – Critical Thinking Essay

The following is a list of acceptable topics that can be selected from. (Please note that this is a list of suggestions. A different topic can be selected if you have a preference for a topic that is not listed):

Right to Die
Drug Therapy
Children and Medication
Diagnosis of ADHD
Television or Video Games and Violent Behavior
Using Deception in Research
Using Animals in Research
Recovered Memories

Use the GCU library to locate two peer-reviewed articles on your chosen topic. The articles should argue opposite sides of the controversy.

In 1,250-1,500 words:

Briefly explain the claims of both articles as well as the background of the controversy and how it became controversial. Including how historical perspectives and theories add to the controversy.
Examine the evidence given in the articles and explain which article creates a stronger argument.
Identify any logic fallacies that exist in both and explain what makes them logic fallacies (For a list of logical fallacies, follow this link
Describe why the article’s argument is stronger than the other. Give examples from both. Include how current perspectives and theories support your rationale.
Describe how the controversy you chose is applicable and significant to the world.

Use five to six scholarly references to support your claims.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

MS Psychology

1.1: Describe key historical perspectives and theories in psychology

1.2: Differentiate among current perspectives and theories in psychology

1.3: Describe applications of psychology.


Attempt Start Date: 01-Aug-2019 at 12:00:00 AM

Due Date: 07-Aug-2019 at 11:59:59 PM

Maximum Points: 150.0

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Artificial Intelligence

This week we covered Artificial Intelligence. The assignment is (Discussion post) about 250 -500 words (you don’t have to write a reference, if you do, please use the one I have uploaded)

What is AI? How has AI been applied in the mental health care system (provide examples from Luxton, 2013)? What are the benefits of AI in the health care system, and what are some of the concerns? What is the goal of Natural Language Processing (NLP)? Describe each of the main distinct focuses of NLP. Select two of the levels of NLP and describe each, as well as provide an example. Describe some of the similarities and differences between the Statistical Approach and the Connectionist Approach. How did Fei Fei Li and colleagues incorporate NLP into their object-naming system described in the TED Talk? How can the technology described in the TED Talk be applied to real-world applications?

A link to the TED Talk video by Fei-Fei Li:


1. 250 to 500 words

2. I have uploaded a short TED Talk by Fei-Fei Li + 2 articles one by Luxton (2013) and one by Liddy (2001)

3. Please check the (Rubrics)








Primary Post addresses few, if any, aspects of the assignment, and demonstrates

little to no


of the subject


Primary Post indicates that you may not have paid attention to the assignment’s Instructions or subject matter. The ideas presented in the post are not original or supported by course material. The post is largely

Based on your personal opinion and experiences.

Primary Post addresses most of the aspects of the assignment. The ideas presented in the post demonstrate some understanding of the academic subject matter. Your post is supported by incomplete, or anecdotal evidence.

Your positing addresses all aspects of the assignment. The ideas presented in

The post demonstrates a thoughtful consideration of the academic subject matter. Your post is Supported by strong evidence from the course material.

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Shadow Health

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Complete the ShadowHealth© Respiratory and Cardiovascular and both corresponding Concept Labs assignments
After you have achieved at least 80% on the assignment(s) download, save and upload your LabPass document to the dropbox.

Professional Development

Write a 500-word APA reflection essay of your experience with the Shadow Health virtual assignment(s). At least two scholarly sources in addition to your textbook should be utilized. Answers to the following questions may be included in your reflective essay:
What went well in your assessment?
What did not go so well? What will you change for your next assessment?
What findings did you uncover?
What questions yielded the most information? Why do you think these were effective?
What diagnostic tests would you order based on your findings?
What differential diagnoses are you currently considering?
What patient teaching were you able to complete? What additional patient teaching is needed?
Would you prescribe any medications at this point? Why or why not? If so, what?
How did your assessment demonstrate sound critical thinking and clinical decision making?
See files attached.

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NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.