I need these questions answered in 150 words each with individual referencesUNIT 3DQ1Differentiate between bias and confounding. Discuss the criteria necessary to establish a factor as a confounder and provide an example applying these criteria. What is one way to adjust for a confounding relationship in the study design or the analysis?DQ2Explain the two major types of bias. Identify a peer-reviewed epidemiology article that discusses potential issues with bias as a limitation and discuss what could have been done to minimize the bias (exclude articles that combine multiple studies such as meta-analysis and systemic review articles). What are the implications of making inferences based on data with bias? Include a link to the article in your reference.STUDY MATERIALSRead Chapters 14 and 15 in Gordis Epidemiology.Read “Association or Causation: Evaluating Links Between ‘Environment and Disease,'” by Lucas and McMichael (2005), located on the World Health Organization website. URL: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.lopes.idm.oclc.org/pmc/articles/PMC2626424/pdf/16283057.pdfRead “Weak Associations in Epidemiology: Importance, Detection, and Interpretation,” by Doll, from Journal of Epidemiology (1996). URL: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jea1991/6/4sup/6_4sup_11/_pdfRead “Causal Inference Based on Counterfactuals,” by Hofler (2005), located on the BioMed Central website. URL: https://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2288-5-28Read “Multicausality: Confounding,” by Schoenbach (2004), located on the Epidemilog.net website. URL: http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/Multicausality-Confounding.pdfView “Sensitivity and Specificity – Explained in 3 Minutes,” by Martin (2014), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnJ3L-63Cf8View “The Relationship Between Incidence and Prevalence,” by Patwari (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1jzZe3ORdd8Use the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource to assist with the completion of the Measuring Morbidity: Prevalence and Incidence assignment, as needed.UNIT 4DQ1Based on the “Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment,” by Schoenbach, discuss two significant insights you learned about confounding. Use specific examples from the assignment to support your answer.DQ2Describe the characteristics and design of a cohort study. Based on a disease or health condition identified from the “2020 LHI Topics” on the Healthy People 2020 website, or an article from the GCU library, discuss a real example of a cohort study (include the link to the article in your post to the forum). Include the participants, exposures or treatment groups, timeframe, and outcomes that were measured. Why is a cohort study described as an “observational” study rather than an “experimental” study design?STUDY MATERIALSRead Chapters 7-9 in Gordis Epidemiology.View “Randomized Control Trials and Confounding,” by Martin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ybuE39BpQ8Read “2020 LHI Topics,” located on the Healthy People 2020 website. URL: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/leading-health-indicators/2020-LHI-TopicsComplete the “Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment,” by Schoenbach (2001), located on the Epidemilog.netwebsite. URL: http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/ConfoundingAssgt.pdfRefer to the “Multicausality: Confounding – Assignment Solutions,” by Schoenbach (2001), located on the Epidemilog.netwebsite, to check your answers to the assignment. URL: http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/ConfoundingSolns.pdfRead “Understanding Controlled Trials: Why Are Randomized Controlled Trials Important?” by Sibbald and Roland, from British Medical Journal (1998). URL:http://search.proquest.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1777585669/fulltextPDF/2BDCED02960C4E6APQ/1?accountid=7374UNIT 5DQ1Describe the common characteristics and design of a case-control study. Discuss the three important features when it comes to selecting cases and controls, and identify a situation when one of these might be violated. Discuss the limitations of using questionnaires for determining exposure status and provide examples of alternative strategies for collecting this information in a case-control study.DQ2Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of cross-sectional studies and examples of how they can be “descriptive” or “analytic” study designs. Discuss an example of a disease where survival could influence the association between a possible exposure and the disease when measured with a cross-sectional study. Do not discuss examples used in the textbook.STUDY MATERIALSRead Chapter 10 in Gordis Epidemiology.View “Cohort and Case Control Studies,” by Martin (2013), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3GHTYa-gZgRead “Introduction to Study Designs – Cross-Sectional Studies,” located on the Health Knowledge website. URL: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/e-learning/epidemiology/practitioners/introduction-study-design-cssRead “Cross-Sectional Studies,” from ERIC Notebook (2012), located on the Gillings School of Global Public Health -University of North Carolina website. URL: https://sph.unc.edu/files/2015/07/nciph_ERIC8.pdfRead “Section 7: Analytic Epidemiology,” from Lesson 1 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics (2012), located on the CDC website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section7.htmlUNIT 6DQ1Differentiate between association and causation using the causal guidelines. Discuss which of the guidelines you think is the most difficult to establish. Discuss the four types of causal relationships and use an example not listed in the textbook to describe each relationship.DQ2Explain the difference between relative risk, attributable risk, and population attributable risk. Provide an example (not from the textbook) of how each type of risk is used in epidemiology. How would you propose using population attributable risk to advocate for a health policy or intervention relative to your health interest?STUDY MATERIALSReview Chapter 14, and read Chapters 11-13 in Gordis Epidemiology.Read “Causation in Epidemiology: Association and Causation,” located on the Health Knowledge website. URL: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/e-learning/epidemiology/practitioners/causation-epidemiology-association-causationRead “Section 5: Measures of Association,” from Lesson 3 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) self-study course, Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice: An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics (2012), located on the CDC website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson3/section5.htmlUse the “BRFSS Web Enabled Analysis Tool,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, to complete the topic assignment. URL: https://nccd.cdc.gov/weat/#/Review “Multicausality: Confounding,” by Schoenbach (2004), located on the Epidemilog.net website. URL: http://www.epidemiolog.net/evolving/Multicausality-Confounding.pdfView “How to Calculate Relative Risk,” by Shaneyfelt (2012), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk2uK14eHNsView “How to Calculate an Odds Ratio,” by Shaneyfelt (2012), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITi0SxmQTO8UNIT 7DQ1Epidemiological methods are used in a variety of public health areas (including infectious disease, chronic disease, and social health) and settings (including the community, schools, and the workplace). Epidemiological methods are used to assess, describe, analyze, and make comparisons of populations to inform evidence-based practices, policies, and interventions. Propose a study based on the methods you have learned thus far designed to investigate an association within one of the public health areas listed (infectious disease, chronic disease, or social health) and the methods you would apply. Discuss and define the risk factor or exposure that is being assessed, the method of comparison that is used, and the setting or situation (community, school, workplace, etc.) your study would look to address. Consider the concepts of causal inference, measures of association, and study design.DQ2Race is often used as a descriptor of disease burden and helps us to determine where health disparities exist in order to address them, which is important. It is helpful to differentiate between race as a descriptor and race as a risk factor. Think about institutional racism and its influence on health. Consider the factors related to race and ethnicity that might be influencing disease status more than the genetics of race when answering this discussion question.Consider the following statement: “Race is not a risk factor and should not be used in public health data collection.” Discuss the ethical and public health implications of this statement. When might collecting data on race perpetuate institutional racism leading to health disparities and when is it necessary to improve public health? Provide support and examples for your answer. Consider ethical issues related to respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as described in “The Belmont Report.”STUDY MATERIALSRead Chapters 17, 19, and 20 in Gordis Epidemiology.Read “Health Inequalities Among British Civil Servants: The Whitehall II Study,” by Marmot and Smith, from The Lancet (1991). URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hch&AN=9107080526&site=ehost-live&scope=siteRead “The Role of Epidemiology in Disaster Response Policy Development,” by Thorpe et al., from Science Direct (2015). URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S1047279714003184?_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_origin=gateway&_docanchor=&md5=b8429449ccfc9c30159a5f9aeaa92ffbRead “Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy,” by McHugh, Nielsen, and Weiss, from Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (2015). URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0740547214001871?_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_origin=gateway&_docanchor=&md5=b8429449ccfc9c30159a5f9aeaa92ffb&ccp=yRead “The Role Epidemiology in Evidence-Based Policy Making: A Case Study of Tobacco Use in Youth,” by Aldrich et al., from Annals of Epidemiology (2015). URL:http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S1047279714001495?_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_origin=gateway&_docanchor=&md5=b8429449ccfc9c30159a5f9aeaa92ffbRead “Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities,” by Carter-Pokras et al., from Annals of Epidemiology (2012). URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724931/Read “Epidemiology and Public Policies,” by Barata, from Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia (2013). URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1415-790X2013000100003&script=sci_arttext&tlng=enRead “Ethical Issues in Epidemiologic Research and Public Health Practice,” by Coughlin, from Emerging Themes Epidemiology (2006). URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1594564/Explore the “Viral Hepatitis Epidemiologic Profiles” map, located on the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) website, to assist with topic assignment.URL: https://www.astho.org/Viral-Hepatitis-Epi-Profiles/Map/Use the “BRFSS Web Enabled Analysis Tool,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, to complete the topic assignment. URL: https://nccd.cdc.gov/weat/#/Review the “Belmont Report,” by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1979), located on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – Office for Human Research Protections website. URL: https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.htmlExplore the resources on “Health Data Tools and Statistics,” located on the PHPartners website. URL: https://phpartners.org/health_stats.htmlExplore “Surveillance, Epidemiology and the End Results Program,” from the National Cancer Institute.URL: https://seer.cancer.gov/Explore the STEPwise Approach to Surveillance (STEPS) page of the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: http://www.who.int/chp/steps/en/UNIT 8DQ1One method to investigate gene-environment interactions is to study monozygotic twins. Identify an example of a twin study not listed in the textbook used to examine the gene-environment interaction of a specific disease or condition. Briefly summarize the gene-environment interaction investigated, the methods, and the results. What are other possible methods for studying gene-environment interactions as they relate to improving population health?DQ2Using the CDC Wonder website, set the query criteria for pancreatic cancer for the United States as illustrated below. Compare the rates by race for Wisconsin and Colorado. Discuss possible biological, genetic, and environmental reasons for differences. What are potential social determinants that contribute to the disparity presented between the two states?Use this query upon entering the CDC Wonder website:Select “Cancer Statistics” under the Wonder Systems tabSelect “Cancer Incidence 1999 – 2013” and click “Data Request”Organize table layout:Group results by 1. States and 2. Race (leave the rest of the group options as “None”)Measures – click “Count” (default) and “Age Adjusted Rates”Select location – select “States” and “The United States”Select year and demographicsYear – 2014Sex – All gendersAge groups – All agesEthnicity – All ethnicitiesRace – All racesSelect cancers of interest – select “Pancreas”Other options – keep default settingsSTUDY MATERIALSRead Chapter 16 in Gordis Epidemiology.Read “Gene-Environment Interaction,” located on the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences website. URL:https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/science/gene-env/index.cfmRead “Defeating the ZIP Code Health Paradigm: Data, Technology, and Collaboration Are Key,” by Graham, Ostrowski, and Sabina, from the Health Affairs Blog (2015), located on the Health Affairs website. URL:http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2015/08/06/defeating-the-zip-code-health-paradigm-data-technology-and-collaboration-are-key/Explore the CDC Wonder page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.URL:https://wonder.cdc.gov/Review the Mapping Life Expectancy page of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website. URL:http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/articles-and-news/2015/09/city-maps.html
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